As our population is increasing day by day. The demand for food is also increasing.
The cropping system can help to recover the problem. It also helps to reduce the use of artificial fertilizers. Multi story cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same pieces of land in the same growing season.
1. Various sizes of crops like shrubs, woody etc. can be grown with each other.
2. Sub surface drainage is prepared by pipe.
3. Hydroponics crops are grown on degraded plant residues.
4. Grasses are grown for controlling soil erosion.
Where applicable or not:
Agricultural field where all sizes of crops like herbs, shrubs, woody etc. can be grown and where land areas are insufficient. But it cannot apply in the grazing field.
1. To increase organic matter.
2. To manage nutrients.
3. To grow hydroponic crops in the flooded area.
4. To control soil erosion by subsoil drainage system.
Approximate operation cost:
About 360000 taka per acre for multi-story cropping system.
Contour farming is a conventional Pacific Island exercise that is suitable for growing food on hillsides. When farmers start their farming activities (plowing, planting, cultivating, and harvesting) throughout the slope in preference to up and down the slope, they use contour farming. This is a completely contour farming and powerful conservation exercise used by farmers from around the world.
The first step for slowing down rainwater is to determine your field’s contour lines. Then plant your crops across the slope or “on the contour”. This allows you to do all the land preparation, planting, and harvesting across the slope. Farming across the slope helps to shorten slope lengths, slowing down runoff water so it can soak into the soil.
Benefit from contour farming on their farm practice:
• keep valuable topsoil in place on sloping fields.
• slow water down and let it soak into the soil.
• improve irrigation systems and conserve water.
• reduce labor and make harvesting easier.
• improve the appearance of the farm.
conservation practices for contour farming:
• Hillside Ditch: Hillside Ditch digging a small ditch across the slope to divert rainwater
• Vegetative barriers: egetative barriers egetative barriers and growing small strips of stiff plants across the slope
• Residue Management: leaving slash in the field for soil protection
• Mulching: bringing in MulchingMulching material to cover and protect the soil
• Cover Crops growing: crops to plow down and fertilize cash crops
• Alley-Cropping: hedges of bushes and trees across the slope
In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is therefore called terracing. Terracing is an agricultural practice that suggests rearranging farmlands or turning hills into farmlands by constructing specific ridged platforms. These platforms are called terraces. The essential (and distinguishing) feature of terracing agriculture is excavating and moving topsoil to form farmed areas and ridges.
Terraces are earthen structures that intercept runoff on moderate to steep slopes. They transform long slopes into a series of shorter slopes. Terraces reduce the rate of runoff and allow soil particles to settle out. The resulting cleaner water is then carried off the field in a non-erosive manner. The primary advantage of terraces is improved soil erosion control. Secondary advantages of terraces include elimination of grass waterways that can be difficult to maintain and reductions in flooding. Disadvantages include the capital cost of building terraces, and the time required to maintain terraces.
River Bank Conservation from Erosion
Bank erosion is the most common problem faced in river engineering practices in many countries, especially in Bangladesh and this has been recognized as an awful threat to society. So control of erosion is very much important to save agricultural land, property and infrastructures like bridges, culverts, buildings etc. located alongside the rivers.
(a) Structural measures
(i) Revetment blocks are placed on the slope to protect the bank continuously from erosion and geo-textile filters are placed underneath the blocks to protect from seepage failure.
(ii) Guide bunds constructed at bridge crossings to protect bridge abutments, its upstream and downstream areas from erosion.
(iii) Boulders Graded boulders are placed at the toe of the bank to reduce shear stress and nearbank flow velocity.
(iv) Brick matressing Brick mattresses are placed on the graded bank slope.
(b) Non-structural measures: Non-structural measures are taken against short-term protection. Some examples of non-structural measures are described below:
(i) Flow area increases by dredging Shallow area of the channel is dredged and the area of flow is increased, which reduces flow velocity.
(ii) Flow diversion at the upstream of the problem area by channelization: The upstream approach of the problem area is re-channelized by dredging by pass channels and flow is regulated in the mid stream channel.
(iii) Geo-bag dumping: Geo-bags are dumped on the slope of the bank to arrest the bank on a temporary basis.
(c) Biological protections
There are techniques other than traditional approaches those are practiced all over the world, known as,
bioengineering practices. The widely used biological protection measures are:
(i) Bank vegetation Vegetation directly protects banks from erosion by reducing the near bank shear stresses. Larger vegetation deflects flow. Vegetation offers the additional benefit of modifying soil properties, increasing soil strength due to the reinforcing properties of roots and lowering pore water pressures.
(ii) Wooden piling: Wooden logs are piled along the bank toe to arrest erosion.
(iii) Willow posts: This technique is the means of controlling stream bank erosion through the systematic installation of posts to stabilize eroding banks. It lowers flood water velocity on and near the eroding bank. Planting large willow cuttings (10 to 30 cm dia; 2 to 4 m long) has been widely practiced in the United States for halting bank erosion and restoring riparian zones (Watsonet al. 1997; Shields et al. 1995). Willow posts are emplaced along the stream bank from the water edge landward using 3-5 rows spaced nominally 1 m apart.
(iv) Bandallings: Bandals are placed on the principles that bandals provide partial lateral and vertical obstruction to the approach flow and induce fewer disturbances to the river flow. The key issues of bandals for the control of water and sediment are non-uniform vertical distribution of suspended sediment. Within the lower half of the flow depth, a major portion of the sediment flow is concentrated.
Effective measures to conserve river banks in Bangladesh: The Water Resources Minister said the project “River bank protection in Bangladesh” is aimed to protect river banks and towns across the country.
Catchment of the Brahmaputra River.
Bank protection structures along the right and left bank of the Jamuna River.
Locations of different river bank protection structures along the both banks of the Jamuna River.